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worms

2. QURSTION Thu 01/14/99

Who has experience on the ensamble: peces-hydroponics-worms(red california)


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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Fri, 15 Jan 1999

On Thu, 14 Jan 1999, Palchik wrote:

I am looking on using as solution of the waste (fish food P> remanin,feces,etc.) sory "peces"fish

Then you'll want red wrigglers (manure worms). I have them in my nutrient beds, and they've already infested my lettuce crop's beds, which is quite good.. I use palm peat as a medium so the worms can eat it as well, and give them handfuls of grassclippings to eat as well as the bacteria.

Or, you can keep them in a seperate box and feed them bits of fish, food

scraps, etc.

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Thu, 14 Jan 1999

I want to say I always appreciate your contributions, especially about worms. I have not begun to explore these wonderful critters, but I sure have a lot of them in my gravel beds- I think they are great! (I am fascinated by the spud hydroponics that you mentioned earlier, as well and I am thinking seriously about sweet potatoes, the perfect vegetable, but, I will hold off on that right now..). Gotta question or two for you. I have a source of plain corrugated cardboard scrap material- no ink or adhesives that I know of. Now my question is, the worms will obviously eat this fiberous carbon source just like newspaper, right?, But what about the nitrogen? What ratio of carbon to nitrogen do I need to feed them? Do you have any solid numbers on C/N ratios or just some rules of thumb, feed recipes, etc? So many pounds of cardboard to so many pounds of....what? I am also interested in any information that anyone out there may have on HUFAs, PUFAs, and EFAs (info about various classes of fatty acids) that earthworm biomass offers as a fish feed urce....
I know that the worm carcass is high in protein, so they must eat a lot of nitrogen to make that- but I am off in unknown territory here....

Thanks

Ted.

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Thu, 14 Jan 1999

I keep worms known as red wigglers (Eisenia foetida) in square, stackable trays with wire mesh bottoms. I feed the worms lettuce and potatoes I get occasionaly from a friend in the restaurant business. I also feed them rabbit manure. Rabbits and worms were made for each other. It is my understanding that the worms don't eat the stuff you feed them, they eat bacteria that break down the foods you give them, however they do eat fiber and grit, I use dryer lint and sand. Worms grown in rabbit manure will double every ninety days in number.
I'm very interested in ways to incorporate worms into the greenhouse. I'm setting up a small aquaponics system and want to explore ways I can to make it a sustainable venture. The small stackable trays have vents in the sides and release carbon dioxide. I think the plants would appreciate this. Are the worms you mention in your gravel beds in your aquaponic growing beds? A good web site and supplier for real Eisenia foetida worms can be found at http://www.happydranch.com. Others on this list have talked about worms and specificly the can-o-worms which my trays are modeled after.

Good luck.

Robin Jenkins

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Fri, 15 Jan 1999


I want to say I always appreciate your contributions, especially about worms. I have not begun to explore these wonderful critters, but I sure Thanks.. Glad to see that at least someone reads my postings :-) To have red wrigglers in your gravel beds means that they are feeding on the bacteria and nothing else. I guess you can call it `population control' for your bacterial colony. The worms will turn the excess bacteria into nutrients as well. Remember that your worms can survive in oxygenated water if you want them to, and its a common myth that "worms drown".. Fish will also drown if the O2 content of the water isn't high enough. Gotta question or two for you. I have a source of plain corrugated cardboard scrap material- no ink or adhesives that I know of. Now my question is, the worms will obviously eat this fiberous carbon source just like newspaper, right?, But what about the nitrogen? What ratio of carbon to nitrogen do I need to feed them? Do you have any solid numbers on C/N ratios or just some rules of thumb, feed recipes, etc? doesn't matter that much with vermiculture, which is a plus compared with normal composting. The cardboard sounds fine. I feed my worms cardboard, and then sift the plastic out after they've fed. So many pounds of cardboard to so many pounds of....what? I am also interested in any information that anyone out there may have on HUFAs, PUFAs, and EFAs (info about various classes of fatty acids) that earthworm biomass offers as a fish feed source.... Wheat is a great thing to use if you want to fatten the worms. I beleive that quite a few worm people (http://www.earthworm.net/ is a good starting point) have specific fattening recipies. I know that the worm carcass is high in protein, so they must eat a lot of nitrogen to make that- but I am off in unknown territory here.... Like I said, I know people who /just/ feed the worms newspaper. Just newspaper! That's a whole lot of carbon, and little nitrogen. Diversity isthe key, but the critters don't mind it at all.

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Fri, 15 Jan 1999

My understanding that the worms don't eat the stuff you feed them, they eat bacteria that break down the foods you give them, however they do eat fiber and grit, I use dryer lint and sand. Worms grown in rabbit manure will double every ninety days in number. Worms can and do eat small scraps of food. They also eat the bacteria on the food, but they can and do ingest small bits of food. Fresh mashed potato is an example. Because it is so fluffy, the worms can digest it without it being pre-digested by bacteria. The worm itself has lots of bacteria in its gut which deal with the food, and convert it into that brilliant black excreta (castings). Its therefore important that you include about a tablespoon of sand every month or so, so that the worms can use the grit. The worm "eats" food by putting a piece of grit in its "mouth" and banging the food against it. make it a sustainable venture. The small stackable trays have vents in the sides and release carbon dioxide. I think the plants would appreciate this. Are the worms you mention in your gravel beds in your aquaponic growing Contrary to popular beleif, a worm can tolerate levated CO2 levels by

excreting the CO2 as calcium carbonate (a chalk) from its skin. To do that it uses calcium (duh!), and hence healthy worms have calcium. You can add this by adding crushed bones to the worm farm if you want to, or even small amounts of powdered milk.

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Fri, 15 Jan 1999

According to the literature that came with one of my bins, the ideal C:N ratio is 30:1. Shredded corrugated cardboard is superior to shredded paper as a food source for worms due to the animal-based glue which provides N. I soak it overnight before adding it to the bin. Be careful about using unshredded paper or cardboard as it will mat down and become anaerobic. An excellent source of info is the Vermicomposting Forum, http://www.oldgrowth.org/compost/forum_vermi/ which has an extensive, searchable archives. My small indoor bin and large outdoor one are perking right along and beginning to supply enough worms to feed both my tilapia broodstock as well as the frogs I'm acclimating before I release them for slug control.

Gordon

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Subject: earthworm castings literature search

Date: Sun, 17 Jan 1999

This was just posted on the worm digest list. Jim operates a large vermiculture operation in Washington State.

EARTHWORM CASTINGS-Literature Search Copyright by Jim Jensen, YELM Earthworm & Castings Farm, 1997 yelmworms. Permission granted to copy or post with complete attribution in whole, without addition, deletion, or substitution. Earthworm castings provide many special benefits beyond what farmers or gardeners can expect from just manure or compost. In fact, most specialists recommend that castings be used as a top dressing or supplement. In this way, castings help make the most effective use of all your bulk soil amendments. "A little goes a long way" because the benefits of castings are so concentrated. In nature, composting worms tend to be highly localized, thriving in pockets of highly enriched, organic materials. They will consume a great variety of organic wastes and excrete "worm castings," a highly valued soil conditioner. Composting worms also tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, which helps explain their adaptability.

Here are the results of research conducted by leading researchers around the world:

Scientific studies show that worm-worked composts have better texture and soil-enhancing properties; hold typically higher percentages of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous; and may offer plants disease-fighting properties. [Edwards, 1988].

"Earthworm excreta (castings) are an excellent soil-conditioning material with a high water holding capacity and a 'natural time release' for releasing nitrogen into the soil." [Harris, et. al., 1990].

"Vermicompost (castings) is a finely divided peat like material with excellent structure, porosity, aeration, drainage and moisture-holding capacity." [Dominguez, et. al., 1997]

"Among the blessings of castings, vermiphiles count a smaller particle size than thermophilic compost, lower odor, enhanced microbial activity, and as a bonus, the vermicompost often contains worm cocoons, meaning a free work force for the future." [Riggle and Holmes, 1994]

"Through vermicomposting the humic substances showed an increase of 40 to 60 percent which was higher than the value obtained for the composting process." [Dominguez, 1997]

"An important feature is that during the processing of the wastes (manure) by earthworms, many of the nutrients they contain are changed to forms more readily taken up by plants, such as nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable phosphorus and soluble potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The mostsurprising result [of our research] was that even 5% of worm-worked animal waste in the worm-worked waste/commercial mixture had a significant effect on the growth of plants." [Edwards and Lofty, 1977] Emphasis added.

In a study for the EPA, researchers reported, "Passage of organics through the earthworm's gut significantly alters the physical structure of the material. Large particles are broken down into numerous smaller particles, with a resultant enormous increase in surface area. As a result of the increase in surface area, any remaining odor-producing sulfides are completely oxidized, microbial respiration is accelerated by a factor of 3, and Salmonella bacteria are destroyed at a higher rate." [Camp, Dresser and McKee, 1980],

"The results obtained for the germination index showed a beneficial effect of earthworms and the highest values of this index were recorded at the final stages of the process. The germination index was 65 to 70 percent higher in the treatments with earthworms than in the control (no earthworms)." Regarding heavy metals: "We found a decrease of between 35 percent and 55 percent of the bioavailable metals in two months." [Dominguez, 1997]

"By shredding organic matter and contributing nitrogen, earthworms stimulate microbial decomposition. Soil microorganisms live in the worm's gut as well as the surrounding soil and so the microbial content of casts is usually more concentrated than in surrounding soil. Microbial activity in casts improves soil structure by encouraging aggregation of particles. Microbial secretions (gums) and growth of fungal hyphae stabilize the worm cast. Worm-worked soil is relatively water-stable and will resist soil compaction and run-off due to rains. [Edwards and Lofty, 1977]

"In sum, earthworms must be seen not as a "miracle pill,' a panacea for better soil and crop yields, but as an integral part of intelligent organic soil management practices. As earthworms are dependent upon organic matter for food, and mulches for protection from heat, cold, and drought, so do growing plants depend upon the earthworm, in combination with bacteria and other microorganisms, to maintain and improve soil structure and fertility. When earthworms are seen as part of a living soil, existing in and contributing to a vital ecosystem, then the question of "whether earthworms create good soil, or good soil creates earthworms" becomes essentially meaningless. Our aim is to improve our soils and grow higher yields of healthy crops, not to banter about academic questions. In this pursuit, the earthworm has-beyond doubt-found a treasured place in the organic scheme of gardening and farming." [Minnich, 1977] References Buchanan, M.A., et. al., "Chemical Characterization and Nitrogen Mineralization Potentials of Vermicomposts Derived from Differing Organic Wastes," Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, The Hague, Netherlands, SPB Academic Publishing, 1988. Camp, Dresser, McKee, Inc., Compendium on Solid Waste Management by Vermicomposting, Cincinnati, OH, Municipal Environmental Research Lab, EPA, 1980. Dominguez, Jorge; "Testing the Impact of Vermicomposting," BioCycle, April 1997. Dominguez, Jorge; Edwards, Clive; and Subler, Scott; "A Comparison of Vermicomposting and Composting," BioCycle, April 1997. Edwards, Clive, "Historical Overview of Vermicomposting," Biocycle, June 1995. Edwards, Clive, ed., "Breakdown of Animal, Vegetable and Industrial Organic Wastes by Earthworms," Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, The Hague, Netherlands, SPB Academic Publishing, 1988. Edwards, Clive, and Lofty, J.R., Biology of Earthworms, Chapman and Hall, London, 1977. Frank, Richard, et. al., "Metal Transfer in Vermicomposting of Sewage Sludge and Plant Wastes," Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 1983. Haimi, J. and Huhta, V., "Capacity of Various Organic Residues to Support Adequate Earthworm Biomass for Vermicomposting," Biology and Fertility of Soils, Spring-Summer, 1986. Harris, George, et. al., "Vermicomposting in a Rural Community," Biocycle, Jan. 1990. Loehr, Raymond, et. al., Waste Management Using Earthworms: Engineering and Scientific Relationships (final project report), Washington, DC, National Science Foundation, 1984. Minnich, Jerry, The Earthworm Book, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA, 1977. Riggle, David and Holmes, Hannah, "New Horizons for Commercial Vermiculture," BioCycle, October. Scott, Margaret, "The Use of Worm-Digested Animal Waste as a Supplement to Peat in Loamless Composts for Hardy Nursery Stock," Earthworms in Waste and Environmental Management, The Hague, Netherlands, SPB Academic Publishing, 1988.

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Subject: earthworm castings

Date: Sun, 17 Jan 1999

Personal experience--many more blooms on plants w/ castings than w/o. How about 13 ears of corn on one plant???? It tried anyway; the ears were way under developed..History of particular garden plot was just weeds grown on a cut granite pad...basically subsoil DG(southern california), couldnt dig w/ pick more than 4"...no earth worms, just a few weeds.very hard DIRT! "Soil"(yuk), was ammended w/ 4" layer of bedding (worm), so was eveerything;;,,worms, castings, bedding.Some kelp was added as welll as some dolomite. Many plants had tillers and multiple ears,, was first season under cultivation.SeEd used was third generation seed saved from "RED INCA" OP seed thru "seeds of change".

bill evans

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Subject: earthworms

Date: Sun, 17 Jan 1999

I am in awe at how much can be recycled through earthworms. In the two months since I have started seriously collecting earthworm food and bedding materials I have amassed almost a full car space in the garage of corrugated boxes, junk mail, feed bags and newspapers just from my family alone (Christmas makes TRASH). The prospect of turning this trash into a very valuable resource is exciting.

I intend to sell the castings, along with other farm produce at our large farmers' market in the spring and summer. Towards this end I have set up a simple, portable, and hopefully graphic demonstration of the value of castings. 2 Meter long Kmart plastic window boxes, one filled with compost and one with compost +10% castings sown with lettuce and radishes. I saw slides of a similar setup with marigolds that showed extremely vigorous plants with many more leaves and dramatically different root systems. I will keep you posted.

Donna

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999

Estoy buscando quien tiene experiencia en la utilizacion de la vermicultura en la transformacion de restos solidos de sistemas intensivos de cria de peces.
Mauricio

Translation:

"I am looking for someone who has experience in the use of vermiculture for processing solid waste generated by intensive fish culture."So, it looks like Mauricio would like to run his aquaculture solids through a worm farm. Sort of like feeding cow or sheep manure to worms, but in his case it is fish solid waste.

Adriana

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Subject: Re: earthworms

Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999

You said:"I have set up a simple, portable, and hopefully graphic demonstration of the value of castings. 2 Meter long Kmart plastic window boxes, one filled with compost and one with compost +10% castings sown with lettuce and radishes. I saw slides of a similar setup with marigolds that showed extremely vigorous plants with many more leaves and dramatically different root systems.

_____________________________________________________________________________

Donna: Do you or anyone else have more info on this system? JDO

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Subject: Re: worms

Date: Mon, 18 Jan 1999

As someone else mentioned a couple of days back, compost worms (red wigglers) will live in water with a high enough oxygen content (which actually isn't _very_ high, as far as i can tell). I accidentally discovered this when I first seeded my small experimental waste processing system with a scoop of castings from my worm bin - along with a couple of accidental worms. Several months later, I was very surprised to notice several of the compost worms still _living _in_the_water - acting, basically, like they do in my worm bin. However, I don't know if red wigglers will reproduce in a submerged environment. Or maybe red wigglers would enjoy crawling around in a gravel bed, maybe even keeping it free of solids buildup - so maybe you could just pump the solids-laden water directly onto the beds?

comments anybody?

Lars Fields, (amateur who doesn't know what he's talking about)
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Subject: Re: worms

From: Michael Strates

Date: Tue, 19 Jan 1999 19:42:05 +1100 (EST)

On Mon, 18 Jan 1999, jilli and lars wrote:

As someone else mentioned a couple of days back, compost worms (red wigglers) will live in water with a high enough oxygen content (which actually isn't _very_ high, as far as I can tell).

Yes.. The dO2 level must be about the same as for your fish. I've seen living worms at the bottom of swimming pools alive after 4 days, even with the chlorine in the water! If you're going to attempt this, make sure that you have an airstone or at least a small amount of running water which "drops" onto the pebbles and aerates them.

However, I don't know if red wigglers will reproduce in a submerged environment.

Worms /will/ reproduce, live, etc.. in a submerged enviroment.. HOWEVER, they do NOT like it one bit. Because they are a little off neutral bouyancy, they either rise to the top or stay at the bottom. They will reproduce, make castings, etc.. but as I said, its not going to be an enjoyable life.
jal> Or maybe red wigglers would enjoy crawling around in a gravel bed, maybe even keeping it free of solids buildup - so maybe you could just pump the solids-laden water directly onto the beds?

My aquaculutre -> vermiculture -> algaeculture system works like this:m
1) Yabbies in large polystyrene indoor tanks get fed meat (high protein)
2) Water from Yabbies' tanks gets passed through the first vermiculture tank.
3) Water from the aquaculture tanks is drained to a settling tank where algae grows.
4) A week later, water from the aquaculture tanks gets passed through the second vermiculture tank. I have four vermiculture tanks for my aquaponics system. On week one, 1 & 2 is used, with three resting, etc.. etc..

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Subject: Re: earthworm & pathogens?

From: Michael Strates <mstrates@croftj.net>

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999

On Fri, 12 Feb 1999, doelle wrote:

d> The gravel will absorb most pathogens, but I certainly would like to see a good aeration in the pool to make sure that pathogens do not grow happily in eventually anaerobic conditions. Also one has to watch that the gravel is not eventually coated with pathogens.

Or, the person who originally asked can do what I'm doing.. I have a seperate wormfarm which I draw about 30L of nutrient rich water off. I pour some sodium hypochlorite into it, and then filter the (now sterile water) through granular activated carbon and volia -- a hygenic aquaponic nutrient bed amendment. I suspect this could also be done if you wanted to add earthworm castings into the actual gravel beds as well. Just fill a bucket up with about a 1:6 solution of sodium hypochlorite:water pour in the castings and leave it for about a weak to dissipate.

d> In the case of earthworms, however, I have not heard of any serious problems, since they live in the soil and not necessarily in manure. I'd assume he is talking about redworms, which live in places of high organic matter. If he harvested them from his compost heap or wormfarm, they would be coated with potentially pathogenous bacteria most definetely (even my properly run wormfarm gets anerobic sometimes).

d> Always keep in mind that pathogens come from human or animals . Reminds me of yesterday's disection of a few organs from a sheep we were doing. Some of the other members were happily cutting away, ripping lenses out of its eye and putting them on newspaper. I decided to run over to the microscope and put a section of what looked like its intestine underneath the microscope. Now I understand why everybody must wear gloves!!

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Subject: Earthworms and Pathogens

From: mdsenger@webtv.net (Michael Senger)

Date: Fri, 12 Feb 1999

Current research around the planet indicates that "earthworm powered" wastewater treatment can work very effectively. In Pune India they are basically trickling raw sewage through beds of earthworm castings and yeilding water with no pathogenic components. It is not the earthworms per se that are doing this, but the complex of aerobic microorganisms that accompany the earthworms and live in their guts. These microorganisms will not hurt tilapia and I believe can actually protect them from the most common cause of fish death- opportunistic parasitic bacterium (vibro, aeromonus, etc.) that can affect the fish at water temperatures below 65 F. I have taken containers of vermicompost with worms and have recirculated aquarium water through it for months. The fish seem to benefit from the treatment. I am continuing to experiment along these lines. There are some pitfalls.

It can take a while to get the biology going and and you can possibly kill your fish if the filter "collapses" and consumes oxygen. It is nothing more than an enhanced biological filter. The benefit is that the sludge (fish wastes) in the system are consumed.

Anna Edey of the Solviva Corporation has developed (is developing) similar systems for on-site residential and commercial wastewater treatment. John Todd's "Living Machines" are now very advanced. Forget complicated aquaponic systems. You don't need UV, ozone, pure oxygen, solids settling tanks or any of that. Just good aerobic growing beds with a lot of earthworms and the right microbiology. Then just feed it your aereated fish water which has been kept at the right temperature.

It can be simple.

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Subject: Re: purpose of earthworms in gravel

From: Gordon Watkins <gwatkins@yournet.com>

Date: Sat, 13 Feb 1999

About a year and a half ago, I released a few worms in my gravel beds, both red wigglers and night crawlers. I was dubious as to how well they would adapt to gravel but I had some of each left over from a fishing trip so, what the hey, I released them. Now I see many of each species whenever I disturb the gravel. I also see little piles of castings on the surface of the beds each morning so I suspect they may offset compaction and aid in good percolation. I've also seen baby worms (wormlings?) in the fish vats where they have presumably washed during flood cycles. Besides providing feed for the fish, the worms also help support the small frogs I've released to help with pest control. There are many benefits to worms in aquaponic systems but I have yet to identify a detriment. Above all, they add one more strand in the web of life and help create a more diverse and stable mesocosm.

I now have several bins where I raise quantities of red wigglers which help compost spoiled produce, prunings, newsprint, etc. I harvest a few to feed my tilapia breeders, use the tea to fertilize plant starts, and the compost provides potting soil. Worms have a secure and permanent place in my system.

Gordon

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Subject: Natural Feeds for fish.
From: Robert WALKER
Date: Tue, 18 Jan 2000 08:52:57 +1000

Hi,

I have been experimenting with Crayfish & Strawberries.

The Strawberries have been loving the Fish water. Especially in
the summer conditions where nutirent value should be less (I
believe). Fruit is coming on thick & fast and better than that
of soil. I am using flood & drain, with the sump filled manually
with fish water.

However, my question is related to natural feeds. My crayfish
have been breeding madly in tanks in a shed, and I have some
fish (Silver Perch & Australian Bass). As a treat for the
fish I purchase now and then some black worms - these are expensive
around \\$4 a shot (15 ml).

To my surprise all the crayfish come out and start gobbling up all
the black worms. With discussions from a fish farmer he has shown
improved profits and superior taste from feeding fish more natural
feeds rather than pellets.

My questions here are where can I get black worms from in large
supplys?, how can I farm them?

Regards,

Robert.
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This is an excellent forum with a lot of info on how to do
worms, how not to do worms and the various scams meant to do
you. Please get familiar with the scams as there are several
out there.

I do not recommend or warn you away from any of the
following sites. Buyer beware!! I send these as they are
representative of what is out there. A little browsing can
undoubtedly find more web sites.

http://www.smartgardening.com/wormsuppliers.htm
http://www.dragnet.com.au/~lindah/worms.html
http://www.oldgrowth.org/compost/forum_vermi/
http://gnv.fdt.net/~windle/
http://www.unclejim.com/index.shtml
http://www.redclaw.com/
http://www.drylands.demon.co.uk/wigglers.htm
http://www.earthworm.net
http://www.ctvalley.com/nightcrawler.htm
http://www.wormfarm.com/
http://www.yelmworms.com/
http://www.kazarie.com/
http://www.nj.com/yucky/worm/
http://www.happydranch.com/
http://www.empnet.com/worms/resource.htm
http://www.mirinz.org.nz/penv/Publications/Composting.htm
http://www.wormwoman.com/commercial_vermiculture.html
http://www.vermint.com.au/growers.html.htm
http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~ccat/
http://overton.tamu.edu/smith/oldsmith/vermiculture.html
http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/vermicom.html
http://uccecalaveras.org/compost3.htm
http://hopper.usfca.edu/env-safety/Compost/worm.html
http://www.smartgardening.com/wormcomposting.htm

Marc S. Nameth
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Subject: Re: wrigglers
From: Adriana Gutierrez & Dennis LaGatta
Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2000 04:08:41 -0500

> OK, I realize someone else probably thought of this already so please
> enlighten me. Why don't people raising tilapia feed them red wrigglers if
> they are 70% protien as opposed to 40% fish food, are they not complete
> protiens or what am I missing here, worms are free, and grow prolifically on
> greenhouse scraps, too perfect world?

Tim,
There's a really good answer to this one. The value of the worms in \\$/#
is higher than the value of the tilapia you can produce with them. So
in the turtle debate the return on investment needs to be higher than
for tilapia for this to be financially feasible.

Adriana
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Subject: wriggler thoughts
From: "timjohanns"
Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2000 11:54:15 -0800

The idea I had with wrigglers or what ever kind of worms etc, was that they
eat your clippings, suckers, waste etc. and would therefore, be somewhat
free, excluding triple-net costs, and could be fed to the trout, in light
of the omnivours/tilapia thing, or yes, sold per pound, or thrown to the
compost pile/garden whatever, the idea being to potentiate the systems
waste/by-products to a usable product, feed the clippings etc. to marron,
yabbies they like warm water systems like the tilapia? I'm pretty sure I
didn't just think of this, so does it work like this or am I being too
perfect world here?
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Subject: mealworms
From: "Peter D. Rau" <prau@mailhost.tcs.tulane.edu>
Date: Wed, 15 Mar 2000 14:27:48 -0600

Has anyone given mealworms a try? They are easy to culture and if I remember
right they contain 15 of 16 elements contained in animal tissue. They digest
easily and the only waste product is the outer hard case. I've used them to
feed my larger fish in the aquarium trade for many years.

Maybe this is a solution?

Peter D. Rau
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Subject: Re: Night Crawlers
From: marc@aculink.net
Date: Fri, 07 Apr 2000 22:18:14 -0600

Joy Pye-MacSwain wrote:
>
> Morning All.....
>
> I have recently informed that we are going to undertake a new project at
> our facility and so ..some querries, cause I don't know...sigh.....
> Anyway, has anyone grown night crawlers in a S&S style aquaponics
> setup??? If so problems encountered???? Where can I purchase a
> starting stock?? Thanks and i appreaciate any help that folk can send
> my way.
>
> Joy Pye-Macswain,
> Future Aqua Farms

http://www.smartgardening.com/wormsuppliers.htm
http://www.oldgrowth.org/compost/forum_vermi/
http://www.dragnet.com.au/~lindah/worms.html
http://www.oldgrowth.org/compost/forum_vermi/
http://gnv.fdt.net/~windle/
http://www.unclejim.com/index.shtml
http://www.redclaw.com/
http://www.drylands.demon.co.uk/wigglers.htm
http://www.earthworm.net
http://www.ctvalley.com/nightcrawler.htm
http://www.wormfarm.com/
http://www.vermiculture.u8.com/2Menu.html
http://www.yelmworms.com/
http://www.afn.org/~kazarie/
http://www.nj.com/yucky/worm/
http://www.happydranch.com/
http://www.empnet.com/worms/resource.htm
http://www.mirinz.org.nz/penv/Publications/Composting.htm
http://www.wormwoman.com/commercial_vermiculture.html
http://www.vermint.com.au/growers.html.htm
http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~ccat/sub/vermi.htm
http://overton.tamu.edu/smith/oldsmith/vermiculture.html
http://www.attra.org/attra-pub/vermicom.html
http://uccecalaveras.org/compost3.htm
http://hopper.usfca.edu/env-safety/Compost/worm.html
http://www.smartgardening.com/wormcomposting.htm

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